In 2013, KPMG predicted the emergence of ‘Basel 4’ even before Basel 3 had been fully implemented. Looking back, we see much of what we predicted has come to pass, and in some cases where international standards and national regulation have become more onerous for banks.

Despite what the standard setters may say, Basel 4 is real and it will increase capital requirements and funding costs, which will impact banks’ ability to lend and therefore hit the wider economy.

This page features a number of reports and articles from KPMG that have been forecasting the emergence of Basel 4.

Read our Basel 4 overview here.