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Trgovinske mere za sprečavanje širenja i otklanjanje posledica bolesti COVID-19 / Trade Measures for Preventing the Spread and Mitigating Effects of the COVID-19 Outbreak

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U cilju suzbijanja širenja zarazne bolesti COVID19 i sprečavanja posledica koje pandemija ima na ekonomije svih zemalja, mnoge zemlje u svetu donose vanredne mere kojima se reguliše uvoz odnosno izvoz proizvoda značajnih za zaštitu zdravlja stanovništva i snabdevanje tržišta.

Svetska trgovinska organizacija je, u cilju praćenja primene tih mera i njihovog uticaja na međunarodnu trgovinu formirala posebnu radnu grupu i podsetila članice na obavezu notifikacije svih mera koje utiču na međunarodnu trgovinu. Do sada je mali broj zemalja notrifikovao ove mere, koje se mogu svrstati u kategoriju sanitarnih i fitosanitarnih mera (SPS), odnosno u kategoriju trgovinskih barijera (TBT). Radna grupa nema za cilj procenu usaglašenosti mera sa pravilima STO, već samo omogućavanje transparentnog pristupa sagledavanju njihovog obima i efikasnosti. Detalji donetih mera mogu se videti na zvaničnom sajtu STO.[1]

S druge strane, Svetska carinska organizacija preduzima niz aktivnosti radi usaglašavanja administrativnog postupanja carinskih organa, podsećajući na ranije donetu preporuku o pojednostavljenju carinskih procedura u slučajevima elementarnih nepogoda. Pored toga, svim carinskim administracijama pruža pomoć pri svrstavanju specifičnih proizvoda koji su u od vitalnog značaja za suzbijanje posledica COVID19. S druge strane, ova organizacija upozorava na pojavu nelegalne trgovine medicinskim sredstvima i lekovima, što pokazuje i povećan broj zaplena falsifikovane i piratizovane robe. Pored postojećih platformi za razmenu podataka između carinskih administracija, uspostavljene su i nove na kojima se mogu razmenjivati podaci o nelegalnoj trgovini medicinskim sredstvima i lekovima, radi sprečavanja stavljanje na tržište ovih proizvoda štetnih po zdravlje ljudi.

Mere koje je preduzela Republika Srbija

Izvoz

Kao i većina zemalja u svetu i Republika Srbija je donela mere radi zaštite tržišta, uvođenjem zabrane izvoza određenih proizvoda[2] od značaja za snabdevanje stanovništva. Pregled mera ograničenja izvoza dat je u sledećoj tabeli.

Tarifna oznaka

Trgovački naziv

Napomena

 

 

1. Zabrana izvoza važi 30 dana

2. Zabrana se ne odnosi na robu koja je kupljena u inostranstvu i otprema u inostranstvo (reeksport)

1206 00 99 00

Seme suncokreta u ljusci

 

1512 11 91 00

Ulje suncokretovo, sirovo

 

1512 19 90 00

Ulje suncokretovo

 

1703 90 00 00

Melasa od šećerne repe

 

2102 10 31 00

Kvasac za mešenje (pekarski), suvi

 

2102 10 39 00

Kvasac za mešenje (pekarski), ostalo

 

3401 11 00 00

3401 20 90 00

3401 30 00 00

Sapuni

Ex – osim vlažnih maramica za bebe iz tarifne oznake 3401 11 00 00

 

 

3402 90 90 00

Deterdženti

Ex – osim toaletnih

kuglica i tableta za mašinsko pranje sudova

 

9619 00 81 00

9619 00 89 10

Pelene za decu

 

4818 20 10 00

Maramice

 

4818 20 91 00

4818 20 99 00

Ubrusi (u rolni i na komad)

 

6307 90 98 00

Maske, plastične sa tekstilnim filterom

 

6307 90 92 00

Prekrivke, tekstilne za hiruršku upotrebu

 

4818 50 00 00

Odelo hirurško od papira

 

4818 90 10 00

4818 90 90 00

Maske papirne

 

4015 90 00 00

Odelo zaštitno, gumeno

 

4015 11 00 00

4015 19 00 00

Rukavice, gumene hirurške I ostale

 

6210 10 92 00

Odelo hirurško tekstilno

 

2828 90 00 00

Varikina i ostali dezinfektanti

 

3808 94 10 00

3808 94 20 00

3808 94 90 00

3402 12 00 00

 

Asepsol

 

2207 10 00 00

2207 20 00 00

2208 90 91 00

2208 90 99 00

Alkohol

 

9004 90 10 00

Naočare, zaštitne

 

Pored zabrane izvoza navedenih proizvoda, zabranjen je i izvoz lekova, osim lekova koji se proizvode isključivo za strana tržišta i lekova koje u postupku tranzita u inostranstvo otprema strano lice.[3]

Uvoz

Radi olakšanja stavljanja na tržište neophodnih medicinskih sredstava i lekova, u vreme trajanja epidemije COVID19 ukinuta je primena tehničkih uslova i standarda[4], pod uslovom da proizvođač, odnosno distributer Agenciji za lekove i medicinska sredstva dostavi dokumentaciju propisanu Uredbom. Prilikom uvoza ovih proizvoda carinskom organu se prilaže akt Agencije za lekove i medicinska sredstva kojim se dokazuje da je njihovo stavljanje u promet dozvoljeno.

Pored navedenih opštih mera Vlada je odlučila da sva pravna lica, bez obzira na njihovu delatnost, mogu uvoziti maske i rukavice pod uslovom da nadležnom carinskom organu prilože:

 - Mišljenje Agenciji za lekove i medicinska sredstva Srbije da se konkretne maske ili rukavice ne smatraju medicinskim sredstvom

 - Rešenje ili potvrdu graničnog sanitarnog inspektora, bez obzira na to da li se maske /rukavice svrstavaju u tarifnu oznaku koja je u ISCS-u povezana sa šiframa U65/I65 ili ne i

- Izjavu uvoznika da se maske/rukavice uvoze u cilju zaštite zaposlenih od bolesti COVID 19.

Administrativne mere

Zbog potrebe za praćenjem prekograničnog prometa robe, ali i zbog poštovanja mera ograničenja kretanja i racionalnog korišćenja kadrovskih kapaciteta Uprave carina, određeni su granični prelazi i unutrašnje organizacione jedinice ove uprave koji će u vreme važenja vanrednog stanja obavljati poslove carinjenja. Radno vreme carinarnica, carinskih ispostava i referata koje su otvorene za vreme važenja vanrednog stanja, možete naći na zvaničnom sajtu Uprave carina.[5]

 

[1] https://www.wto.org/

[2] Odluka o privremenoj zabrani izvoza osnovnih proizvoda bitnih za stanovništvo (“Sl. Glasnik RS”, br. 28/20, 33/20, 39/20, 41/20 i 43/20)

[3] Odluka o zabrani izvoza lekova (“Sl. glasnik RS“, br. 32/20, 33/ 20 i 47/20)

[4] Uredba o posebnim tehničkim zahtevima, standardima i primeni medicinskih sredstava za vreme vanrednog stanja nastalog usled bolesti COVID19 izazvane virusom SARS-CoV-2 („Sl. glasnik RS“, br. 41/20)

[5] https://www.carina.rs/

 

KPMG tim

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With a view to controlling the spread of the COVID19 outbreak and mitigating the effects of the pandemic on the economies of all countries, many countries throughout the world have adopted emergency measures to regulate import and export of products that are important for protecting the health of the population and for market supply.

For the purpose of monitoring the application of these measures and their effect on international trade the World Trade Organization set up a special work group and reminded its members of the obligation of notifying about all measures that impact international trade. Up to now very few countries have notified about these measures, which can be classified under the category of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and under trade barriers (TBT). The work group is not tasked with assessing compliance of measures with WTO rules, but only with facilitating a transparent approach to comprehending their scope and efficiency. Details of adopted measures are available on WTO’s official site.[1]

On other hand, the World Customs Organization is taking a series of measures for harmonizing administrative actions of customs authorities, drawing attention to the previously adopted recommendation on simplifying customs procedure under disaster conditions. Besides this, all customs authorities are provided with support in classifying specific products that are of vital importance for mitigating the effects of COVID19. On the other hand, this organization is warning about the occurrence of illegal trade in medical devices and medicines, as indicated by the increased number of seizures of fake and pirated merchandise. Besides the existing platforms for exchange of information between customs administrations, new ones have been set up for exchange of information about the illegal trade in medical devices and medicines to prevent the appearance of such products on the market which are detrimental to people’s health.

Measures Taken by the Republic of Serbia

Source

Like the majority of countries in the world the Republic of Serbia also adopted market protection measures, introducing prohibitions against exports of specific products[2] that are of importance for supplying its population. An overview of measures limiting exports is provided in the following table.

Tariff line

Description

Note

 

 

1. Prohibition against exports effective for 30 days

2. The prohibition does not relate to goods purchased abroad and intended for abroad (re-export)

1206 00 99 00

Sunflower seeds, shelled

 

1512 11 91 00

Sunflower-seed oil, crude

 

1512 19 90 00

Safflower oil

 

1703 90 00 00

Molasses from sugar beet

 

2102 10 31 00

Bakers' yeast, dried

 

2102 10 39 00

Bakers' yeast, other

 

3401 11 00 00

3401 20 90 00

3401 30 00 00

Soap

Ex – baby wipes from tariff line 3401 11 00 00

 

 

3402 90 90 00

Washing preparations and cleaning preparations

Ex – toilet bowl cleaner

and dishwasher tablets

 

9619 00 81 00

9619 00 89 10

Napkins and for babies

 

4818 20 10 00

Handkerchiefs and cleansing or facial tissues

 

4818 20 91 00

4818 20 99 00

Paper towels (in rolls or single sheet)

 

6307 90 98 00

Masks, plastic with textile filter

 

6307 90 92 00

 Drapes, textile for surgical use

 

4818 50 00 00

Disposable paper surgical apparel

 

4818 90 10 00

4818 90 90 00

Paper masks

 

4015 90 00 00

Protective rubber apparel

 

4015 11 00 00

4015 19 00 00

Rubber gloves, surgical and others

 

6210 10 92 00

Textile surgical garments

 

2828 90 00 00

Hypochlorites and other disinfectants

 

3808 94 10 00

3808 94 20 00

3808 94 90 00

3402 12 00 00

 

Disinfectants

 

Besides the prohibition against exports of products, there is also a prohibition against exports of medicines, except for medicines that are manufactured solely for the foreign market and medicines that are subject to re-export procedure by a foreign entity.[1]

Import

For easier market placement of necessary medical devices and medicines, during the duration of the COVID19 pandemic the implementation of technical requirements and standards is suspended[2], under the condition that the manufacturer or distributor provides the Medicines and Medical Devices Agency of Serbia with required documentation in accordance with the Decree. Upon import of such products the customs administration is provided with the document issued by the Medicines and Medical Devices Agency of Serbia as proof of its approval of their market placement.

Besides the listed general measures, the Government has decided that all legal entities, irrespective of their commercial activity, can import masks and gloves under the condition that they provide the competent customs office with the following:

 - Opinion of the Medicines and Medical Devices Agency of Serbia that the specific masks or gloves are not deemed medical devices

 - Decision or confirmation from the border sanitary inspector, regardless of whether or not the masks/gloves are classified under the ISCS tariff line that is linked to codes U65/I65, and

- Statement from the importer that the masks/gloves are imported for protection of employees against the COVID 19 disease.

Administrative Measures

Due to the need to monitor cross-border supply of goods, but also for compliance with measures of limitation of movement and rational use of available staff of the Customs Administration, border crossings and internal organizational units of this Administration have been appointed to carry out customs clearance activities during the duration of the state of emergency. You can see working hours of customs offices  and other customs  units during the state of emergency on the official website of the Customs Administration.[3]

 

[1] Decision on Prohibition Against Exports of Medicines (Off. Gazette of RS, no. 32/20, 33/20 and 47/20)

[2] Decree on Special Technical Requirements, Standards and Use of Medical Devices During the State of Emergency Arising from the COVID19 Disease Caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Virus (Off. Gazette of RS, no. 41/20)

[3] https://www.carina.rs/

[1] https://www.wto.org/

[2] Decision on Temporary Prohibition Against Exports of Basic Products of Importance for the Population (Off. Gazette of RS, no. 28/20, 33/20, 39/20, 41/20 and 43/20)

KPMG Team

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