Currently, artificial intelligence can primarily be found in the area of cognitive intelligence and, to a lesser degree, in the sensorimotor area. Autonomous emotional and social intelligence is currently not achievable artificially.
Nevertheless, there has been significant debate over the past few years about whether it will be possible to categorically identify strong artificial intelligence in the future. Until recently, academics often used the Turing test to understand the challenge.
— Turing test: In this test method, named after mathematician Alan Turing, a person talks with another person as well as with an artificial intelligence for an extended period of time without visual contact. If the test person is no longer able to differentiate between the human and the machine, then the artificial intelligence has passed the test.
— Chinese Room thought experiment: However, many experts now no longer deem the Turing test adequate. As proof, they refer to the thought experiment of the “Chinese Room” developed by John R. Searle. It suggests that the pure processing of programs and symbols is not an indication of intelligence if the symbols have no meaning, and if the story that they tell is not comprehended by the respective individual or AI.
Chinese Room thought experiment set-up: A person who does not speak Standard Chinese sits in a room.
The person is handed a note written in Chinese characters that is supposed to be translated. The person receives instructions as to where and how information for the translation can be found in the room and the text can be translated successfully using this information.
Nevertheless, the person inside the room still does not
speak Standard Chinese.